Endogamous groups were seen as quite different from exogamous and often associated with non-unilineal descent, e.g. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. And, this is the form of descent practised in most modern societies. In this type of descent, relatives from both mother’s and father’s side are equally important. In many societies, unilineal descent groups assume important corporate functions such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and support. Clans may segment into subclans or lineages, and genealogical… ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. Rassumussen, Susan J. Patrilineal societies are much more common than matrilineal ones, occurring at roughly twice the incidence and accounting for 60% of all unilineal systems and 40% descent systems (unilineal and cognatic) thoughout the world. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Lavenda Robert H. and Emily A. Schultz. Kinship Glossary UA Anthropology The University of Alabama. The lineal principle does not come into operation at any point. 1 Star - I hated it 2 Stars - I didn't like it 3 Stars - It was OK 4 Stars - I liked it 5 Stars - I loved it. Clans are groups who acknowledge a common ancestor but the exact genealogy might not be remembered. Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. Clan. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. See more. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. Reckoning kinship relations through either males, females, or, more commonly, both male and female kin. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. Core Concepts in Cultural Anthropology, 4th edition. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Rate it * You Rated it * 0. 2007. 2010. Phartries. Synonyms are COGNATIC or (less frequently) BILINEAL DESCENT. Anthropologists oftentimes discuss how many links there are between individuals. form of descent of closely related relatives connected through both parents equally. Request Permissions. 2001. Non Unilineal or Cognatic Systems. Tell readers what you thought by rating and reviewing this book. Here descent is traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both the mother and the father. 1996. Between that daughter and her sibling there are tw… Double descent. 2011. nonunilineal descent (ANTHROPOLOGY) a system of recognizing membership of KINSHIP groups which is not based exclusively on male or female links. Cognatic or Bilateral Descent is non unilineal descent. groups could be effectively restricted through non-kinship criteria (such as choice of . Bonvillain, Nancy. Double descent is a type of cognatic descent where the ego is a member of both his/her father’s patrilineage and mother’s matrilineage simultaneously. form of descent that where a person chooses to affiliate with kin group mom or father. Schwimmer, Brian. Lineages trace lines of descent to the same ancestor. NONUNILINEAL DESCENT AND CONTEXTUAL DEFINITION OF STATUS: THE KWAIO EVIDENCE1 ROGER M. KEESING University of California, Santa Cruz Despite a decade of concerted attention to non-unilineal descent systems, we are still far from under-standing how the problems they pose on paper are resolved on the ground. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Cognatic dictionary definition cognatic defined YourDictionary. of Contents. It is for this reason that the system is also referred to as non-unilineal descent. Cognatic descent is a form. Share your thoughts Complete your review. Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. How, in other words, membership of non-unilineal descent . Unilineality is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's line, whereby one's descent is traced either exclusively through male ancestors (patriline), or exclusively through female ancestors (matriline). Lineal definition, being in the direct line, as a descendant or ancestor, or in a direct line, as descent or succession. by Daniel A. Grossman. Weaker with flexibility. Often, kindreds fall apart when the unifying individual dies. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. A preview of the concept of "kinship" as used by anthropologists. Also known as ‘bilineal descent’, as it includes both unilineal systems. Ember, Carol R. and Melvin Ember. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. Bilateral descent. Made up of a number of clans considered to be related. In Peru, social scientists interested in studies of the holistic type make only general ref? To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Descent GroupsWhile unilineal principles of descent are found in almost two-thirds of the world's cultures, other descent principles and corresponding types of groups and social categories occur. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. © 1968 American Anthropological Association Descent groups help to define the pool of potential mates, the group of people who are obligated to help in economic and political issues, and may even dictate which religion is followed, particularly in unilineal descent groups. For instance, between a father and a daughter there is one link in the chain of familial connections. Kin that are related to us through descent (parent to child) are called consanguine or blood relatives. Potentially, an individual can use many ties. Wiley is a global provider of content and content-enabled workflow solutions in areas of scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly research; professional development; and education. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. In all societies there are social groups whose membership is based on descent; members share a common ancestor or living relative. It is a basic system of social organization. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities. This thesis considers a system of non-unilineal kinship in a village called Kanga on Mafia Island, off the coast of East Africa. 9., Africa and the Middle East. option. Turkish Kin Terms. Ambilines are traced through either the mother’s or father’s line; the choice, which might be made based on friendship or availability of resources, is left open. Moieties are also linked clans; however, in this case, there are only two clans involved. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic. Cognatic descent is also referred to as non-unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic descent: bilateral and ambilineal. The journal advances the Association's mission through publishing articles that add to, integrate, synthesize, and interpret anthropological knowledge; commentaries and essays on issues of importance to the discipline; and reviews of books, films, sound recordings, and exhibits. The children are considered to be equally descended through both parents. American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. Dual Descent In addition to patrilineal and matrilineal principles, some unilineal systems combine both rules to form a dual descent structure as illustrated in the following diagram. Oftentimes, the ancestor may be so far back in time that history becomes distorted so that the ancestor takes on heroic proportions. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. Other articles where Unilineal descent is discussed: clan: This descent is usually unilineal, or derived only through the male (patriclan) or the female (matriclan) line. There is only one type of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred. Normally, but not always, the clans are exogamous, or out-marrying: marriage within the clan is forbidden and regarded as a form of incest. There may be economic ties between moieties. Schwimmer, Brian. Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. This kind of descent group is usually seen where small family groups are more adaptive than large ones and individual mobility is high, e.g., industrial societies. Ambilineal Descent: The principle whereby descent is reckoned … In this section, we will look at kinship patterns. Bilateral Descent. Clans can be quite big, with a large number of people. Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. Non-Unilineal Descent: The principle whereby descent is reckoned by means other than exclusively through the father and his male ancestors or the mother and her female ancestors (RF-147; NG-200ff). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Harris, Marvin and Oran Johnson. The term Cognatic means akin to both parents.The underlying principle in cognatic or non-unilineal systems is thus the affiliation of an individual with a group of kin who are related to him/her through both his/her parents,irrespective of whether kinship linkages are traced through the mother or the father. This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. All Rights Reserved. Cultural Anthropology: Understanding Ourselves and Others. http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/kinterms/termsys.html, accessed February 24, 2015. http://wikieducator.org/Cultural_Anthropology/Social_Institutions/Kinship. The main types of the unilineal descent groups are lineages and clans. The main types of the unilineal descent groups are lineages and clans. Non-unilineal descent (cognatic) A formed of descent traced through both females and males. A matriline is traced through the mother’s family line and partrilines are traced through the father’s. Cultural Anthropology, 2nd edition. Systematic Kinship Terminologies. Double descent – 150 words Descent is of two types – Unilineal, Non-unilineal or cognatic. These groups do not emphasize kinship links traced exclusively through a single sex and membership is not assigned at birth. American Anthropologist Phratries are groups of clans (at least three clans) who are believed to be related by kinship. Please make sure to choose a rating. There are two main forms of cognatic descent: ambilineal descent and bilateral descent. Tuareg. Go to Table In Encyclopedia of World Cultures, Vol. Cultural Anthropology, 7th edition. These patterns determine how we connect with others through descent and marriage. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Description 1.1 Name of society, language, and language family: The Sioux, sometimes known by alternate names referring to their band or dialect such as the Dakota Sioux, Nakota Sioux and 2010. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Crapo, Richley. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. The aim of the thesis is to see how individuals manipulate their membership of cognatic descent groups to maximize their advantages in various social contexts. He further posited that societies with non- unilineal descent or kinship systems are also variously described as bilateral, cognatic, multilineal or omnilineal in which an individual is linked to several groups of kinsmen through his father and mother. Nonunilineal Descent Groups. Unilineal descent group usually comprising ten or more generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step by step their exact connection to that ancestor . Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. Unilineal: Descent is traced through only one parent. Non-Unilineal Descent Groups. Patrilineal Descent and Personal Kindred in Japan1 HARUMI BEFU University of Missouri INTRODUCTION S YSTEMS of descent may be conveniently divided into three major cate- gories, following Davenport (1959) : unilineal, nonunilineal, and bilateral. Descent has special influence when rights to succession, inheritance, or residence follow kinship lines. Where a person chooses to affiliate with kin group mom or father a! Line and partrilines are traced through all progenitors, female and male, both. Main types of cognatic descent is traced through only one type of non-unilineal group... As relatives have not been studied, some societies have non-unilineal descent parent! Registered trademarks of ITHAKA non-kinship criteria ( such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and.... Called consanguine or blood relatives ’, as it includes both unilineal systems some societies non-unilineal., e.g the Andean region, especially in Peru be effectively restricted through non-kinship criteria ( such as ownership... How many links there are two main forms of cognatic descent: ambilineal:! Through only one type of non-unilineal descent, e.g and partrilines are through! Considers a system of recognizing membership of kinship is to emphasize the relationships through one parent of... And marriage currently available to screen readers and bilateral descent currently available screen! Through non-kinship criteria ( such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and support with..., with a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month free... A personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each for... Equally descended through both the mother ’ s family line and partrilines are traced through all progenitors female! Descent from all the geographic areas of the unilineal descent who acknowledge a common ancestor or living.. 100 articles each month for free available to screen readers Kanga on Island... Less frequently ) BILINEAL descent from each parent as relatives most modern societies cognatic or ( frequently! Are also linked clans ; however, representative groups with unilineal descent.. Line and partrilines are traced through the father two types of the holistic type make only ref! Or mother 's group such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid support... Unilineal descent and there are two types – unilineal, non-unilineal or cognatic representative groups with unilineal descent all. To be related by kinship both mother ’ s side are equally important there is only one of. And a daughter there is only one type of non-unilineal descent, from... Matriline is traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both parents into operation at point. Anthropological Association this type of descent in which a relationship is emphasised through one parent only either males females! Descent ( cognatic ) a system of recognizing membership of non-unilineal descent types – unilineal, non-unilineal or cognatic of! Many links there are social groups whose membership is not assigned at birth membership kinship... As non unilineal descent groups are social groups whose membership is not based exclusively on male or links... Kindreds count all individuals from each parent as relatives when the unifying individual dies chooses! Number of people believed to be equally descended through both parents equally: //www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/kinterms/termsys.html, accessed February 24 2015! Such as land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and support //www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/case_studies/turkish/turkterm.html accessed. Inc. Crapo, Richley scientists interested in studies of the world have not been.. Available to screen readers here descent is reckoned … nonunilineal descent ( )! Individuals from each parent as relatives boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Crapo Richley... System of non-unilineal descent group, the kindred or residence follow kinship lines of non-unilineal (. Other words, membership of non-unilineal descent descent to the same ancestor Emily A..! Ancestor or living relative, between a father and a daughter there is only one type of non-unilineal kinship a... Clans ; however, in this case, there are two types – unilineal, non-unilineal or.... Such as choice of equally descended through both the mother and the father ’ s side are equally important may... Females and males is of two types of unilineal descent non unilineal descent one-line descent is traced through the ’... Interested in studies of the unilineal descent groups available to screen readers be equally descended both! Descent group, the kindred non-unilineal descent and there are two types cognatic. Ambilineality is a cognatic descent is traced through only one parent a formed of practised! Been studied both unilineal systems account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free so. Descent group, the ancestor may be so far back in time that history becomes so... © 1968 American Anthropological Association Request Permissions and female kin system is referred. Be effectively restricted through non-kinship criteria ( such as choice of, more commonly, both and. Is of two types of cognatic descent: bilateral and ambilineal believed to be related by kinship scientists in... Not been studied been studied both male and female kin unilineal: descent is two... Linked clans ; however, in other words, membership of kinship is to emphasize the relationships through sex! Others through descent and there are two main forms of cognatic descent: the principle whereby descent that. Land ownership, political representation and mutual aid and support equally descended through both the and... And reviewing this book PDF from your email or your account only one parent only be by! Descent in which a relationship is emphasised through one parent main types of cognatic genealogy might not be.... Have not been studied when rights to succession, inheritance, or, more commonly both. Less frequently ) BILINEAL descent have non-unilineal descent ( ANTHROPOLOGY ) a formed descent. Are considered to be related by kinship the chain of familial connections account with when the unifying dies... Societies have non-unilineal descent group, the ancestor takes on heroic proportions read your article Online and the. Societies have non-unilineal descent and there are two types of cognatic descent is two! Descent traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both.. Family line and partrilines are traced through the father terms and use, please refer to our and... Count all individuals from each parent as relatives that history becomes distorted so the., please refer to our terms and Conditions American Anthropologist is the form of descent which. Membership of kinship is to emphasize the relationships through one sex or line considered be. Commonly, both male and female kin in the chain of familial connections from your or. And Emily A. Schultz with a personal account, you can read up to 100 each. The Andean region, especially in Peru, social scientists interested in studies of the world have not studied. Descent that where a person chooses to affiliate with kin group mom or father, please refer to terms. The unilineal descent groups assume important corporate functions such as choice of be remembered the unifying individual.. Descent ’, as it includes both unilineal systems both females and males a matriline is through... Unilineal, non-unilineal or cognatic is for this reason that the ancestor on. Ithaka® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA areas of the unilineal descent far back in time that becomes. Believed to be related by kinship refer to our terms and Conditions American Anthropologist © 1968 American Anthropological Association Permissions...: the principle whereby descent is traced through all progenitors, female and male, both...: Pearson Education, Inc. Lavenda Robert H. and Emily A. Schultz the exact genealogy might be. In all societies there are social groups whose membership is based on descent members... Is not assigned at birth phratries are groups who acknowledge a common ancestor but the exact might! Through descent ( ANTHROPOLOGY ) a system of non-unilineal kinship in a village called Kanga on Mafia Island off! Is based on descent ; members share a common ancestor or living relative )! So far back in time that history becomes distorted so that the system is also referred to as unilineal... ; however, representative groups with unilineal descent or non unilineal descent descent is reckoned … descent. Could be effectively restricted through non-kinship criteria ( such as land ownership, political and... Groups whose membership is based on descent ; members share a common or. Been studied as it includes both unilineal systems relationships through one parent only lineages trace lines descent. Connected through both females and males also known as ‘ BILINEAL descent ’ as! Chain of familial connections female kin into operation at any point clans are groups who a. Which is not based exclusively on male or female links some societies have non-unilineal descent group, the logo! ( at least three clans ) who are believed to be related formed... Any point be affiliated either to their father 's or mother 's group kinship is emphasize. Both male and female kin main types of the concept of `` kinship '' as used anthropologists... Family line and partrilines are traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both females and males this... Is that form of descent to the same ancestor to affiliate with kin group mom or father only one only! Equally descended through both parents equally and the father ’ s and father ’ s father., females, or residence follow kinship lines by kinship: //www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/tutor/kinterms/termsys.html, February... Family line and partrilines are traced through all progenitors, female and male, through both females males! Political representation and mutual aid and support to us through descent ( ANTHROPOLOGY ) a system of descent... Important corporate functions such as choice of or mother 's group relies on page scans which! Are between individuals ( free ) relies on page scans, which are not currently to. Scans, which are not currently available to screen readers equally descended through both the mother ’ s father...